Microsurgery of Larynx


All minimally invasive surgeries have the same surgical, oncologic, and functional principles like conventional resections. The removal of abnormal tissue from the vocal folds is done using precision micro laryngeal instruments and/or laser, called Laryngeal microsurgery. The primary objective of this surgery is the complete removal of the tumor with functional preservation. Along with adhering to long-standing oncologic standards, this minimizes morbidity. The tumor extension can be checked clearly with the microscope, and the lesion should be removed only after appropriate safety margins can be maintained with the healthy tissue.

The two major types include the traditional open surgery and transoral laser microsurgery. Most of the cancers of larynx and pharynx were treated with radical surgical approaches such as total laryngectomy, which cause a stoma, or vertical partial laryngectomy, which preserves part of the functioning larynx but results in severe dysphonia.

In traditional open surgery for laryngeal cancer, the surgeon resects involved vocal cords and supporting structures such as cartilage in addition to the larynx and surrounding tissues, and the be reconstructed. There is lot of pain associated with pain, loss of normal function, and long recovery times. It can adversely affect speech, breathing, and swallowing. While in transoral laser microsurgery, the tumor is accessed through the mouth with the aid of an endoscope. The transoral laser microsurgery resects laryngeal and oropharyngeal tumors with minimal damage to normal tissues and maximal preservation of organ function. CO2 laser is the primary choice.

Voice Alteration Therapy


Any non-surgical technique that improve or modify the human voice can be referred to as Voice therapy or voice training. Harmful vocal behaviors and specific behaviors can be changed by this therapy. It consists of both education and exercises. Voice therapy is administered by a speech-language pathologist with a special competence in voice.

Voice is gender discriminative, transsexual women frequently undertake voice therapy as a part of gender transition in order to make their voices sound female. Voice feminization is the change of male sounding voice to a perceived female sounding voice. Voice masculinization is the opposite of voice feminization, being the change of a voice from feminine to masculine. Voice masculinization is not generally required for transsexual men as the masculinising effects of testosterone on the larynx are usually sufficient to produce a masculine voice. Hormone replacement therapy and gender reassignment surgery fail to alter the pitch or sound of the voice. The existing vocal structure can be surgically altered using procedures that include; Cricothyroid approximation, Laryngoplasty, Thyrohyoid approximation, Laryngeal reduction surgery and Laser assisted voice adjustment.
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