Facial surgery


Appearance plays an important role in every others life. This can be affected by accidents, birth defects or premature aging. Many of these conditions can be improved by facial surgery. Injury to the nerve due to physical trauma can result in a visible deformity and difficulty with eye protection, speech and eating/drinking. The facial nerve surgery should be planned only after considering a number of factors including the cause of the nerve injury, the state of the neurons and nerve itself, and the functional impairment to the patient. The reasons for facial plastic surgery are varied. Many choose to modify a facial feature that has bothered them for years. Facial Reconstruction surgery is used to repair or reconstruct facial features that include scar revision, fracture repair, laceration repair, vascular birth marks, cleft lip and palate, craniofacial deformities, orthognathic surgery, free flaps, and other cancer reconstruction. Facial reconstructive surgery can help you increase self-confidence because, for most people, when they look better, then generally feel better. A facial plastic surgeon specializes in executing cosmetic and reconstructive surgery on the face, head, and neck region.

1.Facial Paralysis


The paralysis of any structures supplied by the facial nerve can result in facial nerve palsy. Facial paralysis occurs due to the total loss of all voluntary movement in one or both sides of face and the person is no longer able to move the muscles on one side of the face. The causes of facial paralysis are Physical trauma, especially fractures of the temporal bone. The swelling of the facial nerve, a stroke, even brain tumor, Lyme disease or sarcoidosis are considered as the causes of facial paralysis. The one sided paralysis gives an asymmetrical looks to the face. The eyelid and the corresponding corner of the mouth drop and there might be ear pain on the same side. In newborns, facial paralysis may be caused by trauma during birth. Congenital facial paralysis is an uncommon condition but may cause multiple problems such as difficulty with nursing and incomplete eye closure. It can even lead to difficulties in speech, expressions of emotion, and mastication.

Facial paralysis treatment: The immediate treatment is very crucial in facial nerve injury. Eye blink can be affected by facial nerve paralysis. The disruption of blinking the eye which provides vital moisture to the cornea can cause corneal injury and eventually lead to loss of vision. Constant eye lubrication and taping the eyelid is essential to protect the eye. The brow lift procedure can be used to prevent the descent of the eyebrow that can result in impaired vision. The facial Slings can be made use to restore/lift the midportion of the face to a more normal position. A repair of the nerve can be performed when the nerve is severed due to accidental trauma or surgical removal of tumor. If the nerve ends are easily re-attached, a. If the nerve ends cannot be reattached, a nerve graft is used.

2.Facial nerve palsy – Facial Nerve decompression


Facial nerve decompression refers to exposure of the facial nerve along the length of its bony canal in the temporal bone. The nerve dysfunction can be related to compression of an inflamed nerve within the bony canal resulting in choking of the nerve in the confined space. Facial nerve decompression is the preferred procedure if the continuity of the nerve is not disrupted in facial palsy. Depending on the location of the problem there are different types of facial nerve decompression. Facial nerve decompression often involves a type of craniotomy called a middle fossa craniotomy and may also require a complete Mastoidectomy. These techniques help in removing the compression of the facial nerve. A facial nerve graft may be required to restore long-term function. The facial nerve is usually approached through a middle fossa craniotomy, and through the mastoid bone directly behind the ear and overlying bone is removed. The removal of the overlying bone helps the nerve to expand, thus relieving the compression that causes ischemia and neurapraxia.
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