NOSE AND SINUS


Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may be due to infection, allergy, or autoimmune issues. Healthy sinuses are free from bacteria or other germs. Usually, mucus is able to drain out and air is able to circulate. Any obstruction to the sinus openings or mucus builds up enhances the growth of bacteria and other germs. The most dangerous complication of sinusitis includes abscesses and meningitis of brain due to its close proximity, particularly involving the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. In extreme cases the patient may experience mild personality changes, headache, altered consciousness, visual problems, seizures, coma, and possibly death.

If you experience swelling around the eyes, fever, altered consciousness, swelling in your forehead, or limited eye movement, it is better to consult the doctor immediately.

Preauricular Sinus – Infection


Preauricular sinuses are common congenital malformations. The characteristic nodule, dent or dimple may be located near to the external ear. They are inherited features and usually appear at the anterior margin. A preauricular sinus or a cyst can become infected with bacteria and result in mucus buildup.

Most preauricular sinus infections are asymptomatic. Pereauricular sinuses with chronic intermittent drainage of purulent material from the opening may be seen in some cases. Draining sinuses are prone to infection. Once infected, sinuses often develop recurrent acute exacerbations. Patients with preauricular sinuses may present with facial cellulitis or ulcerations located anterior to the ear. Sometimes these ulcerations are treated without recognition of the primary source, and the preauricular sinus remains unnoticed. A patient with preauricular sinuses may develop scarring and disfigurement following infection. Cleft palate, spina bifida, imperforate anus, renal hypoplasia or renal agenesis, reduplication of the duodenum, undescended testes, and umbilical hernias are seen associated with this infection.

Surgery is the only treatment option for individuals with recurrent infections and should be performed by an experienced surgeon due to its close proximity to the facial nerve. The standard surgical procedure involves the removal of the skin around the sinus, later the preauricular sinus is removed from its tract. A more radical approach used to explore more area. The preauricular sinus along with some surrounding tissue is then removed, to completely remove any dead space around the sinus. Treatment for severe preauricular sinus infections mainly includes taking antibiotics.

Deviated Nasal Septum


The ideal nasal septum is exactly midline and it separates the left and right sides of the nose into passageways of equal size. A physical disorder of the nose, involving a displacement of the nasal septum is referred to as nasal septum deviation. The most frequent cause of deviated nasal septum is trauma, such as by a blow to the face. Nasal deviated septum can also be a congenital disorder, caused by compression of the nose during childbirth. Genetic connective tissue disorders can also deviate the nasal septum.

The most common symptom from a crooked septum is difficulty in breathing through the nose. The symptoms are often worse on one side, opposite to the bend. It can interfere with the drainage of the sinuses, resulting in recurrent sinus infections.

Mild cases can be treated with medications such as decongestants, antihistamines, and nasal spray. Medication does not correct the underlying condition. Septoplasty is the preferred surgical intervention to correct a deviated septum. It is not recommended on minors owing to the continuous growth of the cartilaginous septum till the age 18. Septoplasty is a surgical procedure performed entirely through the nostrils and no external scars occur. The surgery may combine with a rhinoplasty, in which case the external appearance of the nose is altered and swelling/bruising of the face is evident. Septoplasty may also be combined with sinus surgery.
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