Tongue tie


One of the most important muscles for speech and swallowing is tongue. A tongue-tie can lead to eating or speech problems, which may be serious in some individuals.
Ankyloglossia also called Tongue Tie or anchored tongue is a common condition. Newborn tong tie is congenital oral anomaly in which an unusually short, thick lingual frenulum, a membrane joins the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth, thereby decreasing the movement of the tongue tip.

Tied tongue can be defined as a structural abnormality of the cord or the lingual frenum. When the frenum is normal, it is elastic and the movements of the tongue are not affected.

When it is short, thick, tight or broad it has an adverse effect on oromuscular function, feeding and speech. Severe effects are seen when extends from the margin of the tongue across the floor of the mouth till the base of the teeth. Tied tongue in baby also affects the structure and appearance of the face and teeth, as well as oral function.
Tongue tie usually runs in families. The symptoms may not be similar in all individuals. Some have mild effects or no apparent symptoms while others show a severe impact on structure and function. Tongue tie is seen associated with other congenital conditions such as cleft lip or palate or severe hearing loss or cerebral palsy. There are more tongue-tied boys than girls.

Salivary gland disoders


Salivary gland disorders are conditions that lead to swelling or pain in the salivary gland, the saliva producing tissues around the mouth. There are three pairs of gland of the neck: parotid glands, sublingual glands and submandibular glands. Parotid salivary gland is the largest salivary gland. Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at various locations in the mouth.

There are many salivary gland diseases:

Sialolithiasis (stones in salivary gland). Tiny, calcium-rich stones sometimes form inside the salivary glands. Some stones may be related to dehydration, decreased food intake or medications that decrease saliva production, including certain antihistamines, blood pressure drugs and psychiatric medications. The stones in the salivary gland can cause blocked salivary gland.

Sialadenitis (salivary gland infection). Sialadenitis is a painful infection that usually is caused by bacteria. It is more common among elderly adults with salivary gland stones. Sialadenitis also can occur in infants. A salivary gland blockage or poor oral hygiene may be the causes of bacterial infections. They can be seen in people who are dehydrated and in the hospital.

Viral infections: Mumps infections usually affect the parotid gland resulting in swollen salivary gland called parotiditis.

Sjogren's syndrome: Sjogren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder attacking the salivary glands, the lacrimal glands and occasionally the skin's sweat and oil glands.

Sialadenosis (nonspecific salivary gland enlargement): Enlarged salivary glands are seen without infection, inflammation or tumor. This nonspecific enlargement most often affects the parotid gland, and the etiology remains unknown.

Salivary gland carcinoma: Salivary gland tumors are a morphologically and clinically diverse group of neoplasms. Salivary gland neoplasms are classified as primary or secondary, benign or malignant, and by tissue of origin. The causes of cancer in salivary gland can be chewing tobacco, followed by smoking, radiation therapy treatment to head or neck or occupational hazard.

Symptoms: Abnormal tastes, fever, headache, muscle aches, poor appetite, malaise, swelling of the salivary glands, discomfort in opening the mouth, dry mouth, swelling and pain in mouth, ears, face or neck.
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